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Heritage has many voices. within the phrases of Russian fur service provider Grigorii Shelikhov, who led the conquest of Kodiak Island, Alaska, in 1784 and sought to subjugate its indigenous Qikertarmiut inhabitants, "the arrival of the Russians of their land had introduced them innumerable benefits, protection, and prosperity" (Shelikhov 1981:121). Arsenti Aminak, a Qiker tarmiut elder in 1851, held a distinct view. He recalled a Russian send that visited the island a number of years prior to Shelikhov as a "strange monster, by no means visible prior to, which we feared and whose stench made us ailing. " In 1784, the useless of his humans lay at the seashore at a spot known as A'wauq that means "to turn into numb" -where 1000s have been killed by way of Skeli khov's cannon and muskets (Holmberg 1985:57-59). The Russian hunters who equipped the Shelikhov-Golikov Company's first outpost on Kodiak Is land, at a small cove they referred to as Gavan Trekh Svetitelei (as regularly translated, "Three Saints Harbor"), recalled their very own miseries and de spair: "We . . . spent the wintry weather in ceaseless labors and . . . suffered nice shortages and actual famine . . . . Many reduced in size fever, scurvy, and different ills, and died" (Pierce 1976:75). Eyewitness statements approximately what occurred on Kodiak Island dur ing the Russian conquest and early years of colonial rule are very important, yet infrequent. They symbolize the studies and perspectives of some people who lived via a time of turbulent switch and tense touch among disparate cultures.

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